Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

House Cleaning Checklist

House Cleaning Checklist
House Cleaning Checklist

Who doesn't love a clean house? It has taken me quite a while to figure out how to get everything done in the day that I need to. I have, however, finally come up with this checklist that works for the whole month. I just check off under the date once I complete a task.

One sheet will be used for the entire month, so not only will have a clean house, but your will be saving paper in the long run too.

How do you get this House Cleaning Checklist for free do you ask? Just sign up for my newsletter and I will send it to you once you confirm your subscription. I hope this list is a helpful for you as it has been for me.

Have a great day!

Renee

P.S. To make it even easier for you I have added the opt-in form below.

Newsletter sign-up

Sign up today and receive my House Cleaning Checklist! It contains daily, weekly, and monthly items that you just check off when done. Use one sheet for the whole month.

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Good Days Ahead!

Photo from: http://www.thecord.ca/talking-mental-health-anxiety-versus-stress/
Photo from: http://www.thecord.ca/talking-mental-health-anxiety-versus-stress/

Thankfully the last few weeks (even with Hubby's accident) I have largely been anxiety free. I even managed to ride on the freeway in the ambulance on the way to the hospital (plus a couple other times since then). I actually feel like I can do almost anything at this point in time.

I know, when you deal with anxiety, it can change at any moment and this in itself can bring on the anxiety. So, I have been trying to live by a new philosophy which is this: If it's a good day, enjoy it! If it's a bad day, try to figure out why and change it.

If the day is good, don't worry that it will get bad. Just keep going and do what you can while you can. Don't worry about what COULD go wrong. Of course it could go wrong, but why waste time thinking about it unless it does. Right? I mean so many times I think I sabotaged myself by worrying so much about what could go wrong that I had an anxiety attack. I brought it on myself!

I am slowly learning. Sometimes I think to slowly, but still I'm learning none the less. And hey, that's what life's about right? Learning...some times this can be a really long road. I know that it has been for me. I have always been the type to just push through and do what I had to do. When the anxiety really kicked, let me tell you, it kicked my butt. BIG time!

Photo from: http://gilgarciatherapist.com/anxiety
Photo from: http://gilgarciatherapist.com/anxiety

I went from a do-it-yourself kinda girl to a can't seem to do anything kinda girl in a matter of a few weeks. I still have my days where it seems that I can't do anything, but they seem (at least for now) to be fewer and farther between. I am not saying that I am cured. Because I know that is not the case.

What I am saying is that I am learning to deal with anxiety and you can too if you are dealing with anxiety. I know I will still have bad days, but between medication and other coping mechanisms I am doing better. I know my blog has a lot to do with it too because I have met some amazing people (you know who you are!) on this journey that have really helped me to understand both anxiety and myself a whole lot better. For that, I say a very heart felt Thank you! I could not done it without you.

Have a great day!

Renee

 

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Items for Gardening

 

SAMSUNG CAMERA PICTURES
Strawberry Plant

In every task, hobby, or special project you take on, there are always things that can and many times will make it easier to do. This post is about things that make gardening easier. Most of what is on this list are things that I either already have or plan on purchasing.

Because of where I live, the ground is not the easiest place to grow, so I do mostly container gardening. I try to pick up my containers from the dollar store, or yard sales, or use things around the house to make my own elevated planters. We have so many used tires around the house, that project was a given. However, tires aren't the only thing that makes good planters, I have seen people use shoes, buckets, and many other items most of have around the house already. Really anything that will hold soil and release excess water will work.

So, where to start with this list of things we need to make gardening easier. I guess the best place to start is with the planters. So, if you don't want to make your own I would suggest the dollar store. They have so many sizes and different types.

  1. Whiskey Barrel types
    Photo from: Dollar General
    Photo from: Dollar General
  2. Hanging Planters
  3. Plastic planters

Just to name a few. For soil, one could go to the nearest Home Depot or Loews, but I prefer organic and there I usually go to Burpee's for my soil, fertilizers and seeds because they seem to have the best selection.

4.  Starting soil

Photo from: Burpee
Photo from: Burpee

5. Fertilizer

6. Seeds

Some of the tools you might want will include items such as:

7. The seed sower or others listed here.

8.Garden Carts shown here

9. Other organic supplies shown here.

10. Starter kits to get your plants going.

Photo from: Burpee
Photo from: Burpee

Of course there are so many others things that will make gardening easier too such as kneeling mats, however, this is just a short list for starting out. I hope this has been helpful to you and let me know if there are other tools or things that you like to use in gardening. I look forward to talking to you.

Have a great day!

Renee

 

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Research

This is simply for my own reference. Of course if you would like to know a little about what my dissertation will be about this will give a little bit of information on it.

Self-determination theory is a theory of motivation which posits that humans continually and actively seek challenges and new experiences to and develop and master. Within education, the theory considers that students are motivated to achieve different objectives. When a behavior is self-determined, the individual determines that the locus of control is internal to the self, whereas when the behavior is controlled, the locus of control is external to self. The important distinction between the internal or external determinants is not in whether the behaviors are motivated or intentional, but in their internal regulatory processes and how the internal regulatory processes drive external behaviors (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991).

Keywords Autonomy; Competence; Extrinsic Motivation; Goals; Intrinsic Motivation; Learner-Centered; Locus of Control; Self-Determination Theory

Overview

Self-determination theory is a theory of motivation which posits that humans continually and actively seek challenges and new experiences to develop and master. Within education, the theory considers that students are motivated to achieve different objectives. Unlike other motivational theories, self-determination theory offers the “distinction that falls within the class of behaviors that are intentional or motivated. These motivated actions are self-determined to the extent that they are endorsed by one's sense of self” (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991, p. 326). When a behavior is self-determined, the individual determines that the locus of control is internal to self, whereas when the behavior is controlled, the locus of control is external to self. The important distinction between the internal or external determinants is not in whether the behaviors are motivated or intentional, but in their internal regulatory processes and how the internal regulatory processes drive external behaviors. The qualities of the components of the behaviors are vastly different and need to be understood in order to promote self-determination in a classroom environment (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 327).

The Building Blocks of Self-Determination

Intrinsic Motivation

The most self-determined type of behavior is intrinsic motivation. These behaviors are induced for their own sake, and are linked to feelings of pleasure, interest and satisfaction derived directly from participation in the behavior. Individuals that are intrinsically motivated engage in behaviors because of internal feelings of satisfaction derived from the behavior. While engaging in these behaviors, humans are self-regulated, interested in the activity, choosing to engage in the activity, and function without the aid of external rewards or constraints (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Thus, intrinsic behaviors are initiated because the individual chooses to engage in the activity according to their own wishes. When a child chooses a specific book to read and reads it just for the sake of enjoyment, this exemplifies intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic behaviors are “instrumental in nature. They are not performed out of interest, but rather because they are believed to be instrumental” in producing a desired outcome. While research previously has indicated that extrinsic motivation is not a building block of self-determination, recent research has suggested that “these behavioral types differ in the extent to which they represent self-determined” behaviors in contrast to a more controlled response and furthermore, when paired with intrinsic motivators extrinsic motivators may not inhibit motivation (Wormington, Corpus & Anderson, 2012). The determining factor that makes these behaviors more self-determined rather than extrinsic is the factor of internalization (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991, p. 328).

Internalization is a proactive process through which individuals transform their regulatory processes into internal processes (Schafer, 1968). In self-determination processes, internalization is viewed as a motivated process. Self-determination theorists report that they believe that (a) people are innately induced to internalize and integrate within themselves "the regulation of uninteresting activities that are useful for effective functioning in the social world" and (b) that the extent to which the process of internalization and integration proceeds effectively is a "function of the social context." The four types of extrinsic motivation that can be integrated within the interpersonal framework include:

• External,

• Introjected,

• Identified,

• Integrated regulation (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 328).

External Regulation

External regulation behaviors are “performed because of an external contingency, and are considered the loci of initiation and regulation. External regulation represents the "least self-determined form of extrinsic motivation”. External regulation behaviors are typically induced by the offer of reward or punishment. An individual displaying external regulation is an individual that might study just because they know they will be rewarded for doing well (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991, p. 328).

Introjected Regulation

Introjected regulation is a second type of extrinsic motivation in which individuals bow to internal pressure. These pursuits are either based on the pursuits of "self-aggrandizement and (contingent) self-worth or in the avoidance of feelings of guilt and shame." Introjected regulation is a behavior that is “partially internalized and is within the person, but the individual has not accepted” the behavior as emanating from self. In short, the behaviors caused by introjected regulation are not derived from the person's sense of self and can be described as behaviors that are pressured or coerced. An example of this kind of behavior is an example of a student who studies before playing outside because they would feel guilty about not working first and playing later (Vansteenkiste, Lens & Deci, 2006, p. 21).

Identified Regulation

Identification is “the process of identifying with the value of an activity and accepting regulation of the activity as one's own” (Vansteenkiste, Lens & Deci, 2006, p. 21). When individuals value the personal relevance of an activity and willingly engage in the activity, then this represents a more significant form of internalization than other types of externalization. While behaviors resulting from identification are still extrinsic in nature, identified regulation occurs because of one's own volition, which approximates intrinsic motivation. In this way, identification behavior integrates the two types of motivation into a composite behavior. An individual executing identification behavior may study a given subject despite personal difficulty or dislike; for example, because the student knows the subject is integral in fulfilling a self-selected goal (Vansteenkiste, Lens & Deci, 2006). While the student may express personal distaste for a specific area like statistics, the student realizes and understands the importance of the course of study in helping them achieve their goal.

Integrated Regulation

In the case of integrated regulation, the behavior is fully integrated within the individual's sense of self. These identifications are combined with the individual's other sense of their values, needs, and identities. A student might have one view of self-interpretation as a good student and the other as a good athlete. While these two self-identities may seem conflicting and cause internal tensions for the student, the two can become integrated and dwell harmoniously within the person and with the students' sense of self. When this internal harmony is realized then the integrated processes are completely self-willed and mainly occur in adult stages of development. Integrated regulation appears to be very similar to intrinsic motivation, because both integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation cause willing behaviors, develop creativity, and foster understanding. However, intrinsic motivation is different than integrated regulation even though they seem similar in many ways (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 330).

Applications

Motivation in a Public School Setting

In a public school setting, self-determination, or "student-directed learning" involves teaching students multiple strategies that allow them to regulate and direct their own behavior (Agran, King-Sears, Wehmeyer, & Copeland, 2003). Student directed educational strategies are aimed at teaching students to set appropriate goals for themselves, self-monitor their own performances, identify solutions to present or future problems, verbally direct their own behaviors, reinforce their own behaviors, and evaluate their own performances (Agran, Hong, & Blankenship, 2007, p. 453). These are general strategies and outcomes that can be utilized to create a student directed learning environment.

Research has suggested that teachers utilize a multitude of teaching strategies to create student-directed and learner-centered environments (Hsu & Malkin, 2011). In learner-centered classrooms, teachers are attentive to issues surrounding children's "cognitive and metacognitive development, the affective and motivational dimensions of instruction, the developmental and social aspects of learning, and individual differences in learning strategies that are in part, associated with children's cultural and social backgrounds" (Daniels & Perry, 2003, p. 102). In learner centered classrooms, teachers provide several teaching practices that are motivational. Strategies that are used are numerous and include:

• Motivating students by providing a range of instructional activities relevant to children's lives and differentiated according to an individual's developmental needs;

• Frequently interacting with students to monitor development and progress and providing help as needed; and

• Creating positive relationships with children to address socio-emotional and developmental needs (p. 102).

Within this framework, the most important element of these learner centered strategies is the children's perceptions of teacher strategies that they determine to be motivational.

In one interview, children of elementary school age indicated several strategies that promoted motivation in a learning environment. Children reported the desire to be known as a "unique person and learner." Children also desired to be known as an individual and felt secure afterward. Eventually, as students matured, they reported feeling less reliant on teachers and more reliant on peers. Children reported the need to "participate in interesting learning activities." Children expressed boredom with too many repetitive activities. Another factor children indicated was they "want to make their own choices…sometimes." They reported feeling most empowered when they could make their own educational choices. Children also indicated the need to "work with classmates" and reported the desire to work collaboratively with their peers. All of these factors indicated that children's perceptions of learner centered educational environments promoted student motivation, self-perceived competence, and achievement (Daniels & Perry, 2003, p. 106). The perceptions of children regarding their own learning hold several implications for how learning centered strategies can be applied in educational settings.

Students

Rewards such as prizes and money have long been used to motivate students to promote success in school. However, research conducted thirty years ago demonstrated that students who participated in activities and received rewards tended to lose interest in and the willingness to work on the activity in the absence of rewards. Other research seeking to outline primary differences between internalization and intrinsic rewards, demonstrated that rewards for work consistently indicates that these behaviors seek to control behavior at an operational level, but also these behaviors “undermine intrinsic motivation for interesting tasks and impeded internalization of regulations for uninteresting tasks” (Deci et al., 1991). Other “external events designed to motivate or control people including deadlines and competition were similarly determined to decrease intrinsic motivation” (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 335). All of these behaviors elicit external controls on behaviors. When an individual's sense of autonomy is diminished, intrinsic motivation is decreased.

In response to students' behaviors, teachers will also become more controlling over students that act fidgety and inattentive during a lesson. Based on this observation, students that appear to be more motivated and autonomous in school may elicit a greater amount of respect and support derived from the behavior of the student and the teacher's assumptions regarding these indicators (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 341). In response to this research, it can be concluded that the most effective internalization and self-determined form of regulation will occur in students if

• Children are able to understand the value and application of a given activity;

• Are provided choices regarding the activity; and

• If their feelings and perspectives are acknowledged (Grolnick & Ryan, 1989).

This research further implies that teachers have a deep responsibility for promoting these classroom structures.

Teachers

Deci, Schwartz, et al. (1981) reasoned that some teachers were more supportive of student autonomy, while other teachers were more oriented toward controlling their students and their behaviors. Results from their study indicated that students in classrooms of teachers who supported student autonomy were more likely to demonstrate intrinsic motivation, academic competence, and self-esteem than students learning in classrooms of controlling teachers (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 337). Other studies have demonstrated that students in classrooms with supportive teachers were more likely to:

• Stay in school (Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997),

• Experience enhanced creativity (Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, 1984),

• Develop a preference for optimal challenge (Shapira, 1976), and greater conceptual understanding (Benware & Deci, 1984, Grolnick & Ryan, 1987),

• Develop more positive emotionality (Patrick, Skinner, & Connell, 1993),

• Possess higher academic intrinsic motivation (Deci, Nezlek, & Sheinman, 1981),

• Produce better academic performance (Boggiano, Flink, Shields, Seelbach, & Barrett, 1993), and

• Higher academic achievement (Flink, Boggiano, Main, Barrett & Katz, 1992).

These are strong indicators of the role of the teacher in providing academic structures that empower and motivate students' success.

Teachers can very easily fall into academic structures that disempower students and cause them to rely too heavily on the teacher for support and learning. From an observed standpoint, students that rely too heavily on their teachers for support are less apt to thrive in academic environments when teachers stylistically do not provide systematic control over all aspects of the learning environment. In other words, teachers that provide their students with an autonomous classroom setting are able to nurture more active learning from their students and promote student potential (Wright, 2011). This statement is supported by other research that demonsrated that a teacher's supportive style that respected and valued students, rather than neglected or frustrated them, nurtured high interest, motivation, and achievement (Goodenow, 1993; Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989; Ryan & Grolnick, 1986).

Administrators

Deci, Spiegel, Ryan, Koestner, and Kaufmann (1982) indicated that when teachers feel pressured or controlled by their superiors regarding student outcomes, they were more likely to control their students. In studies conducted to determine the impact of teachers under pressure in contrast to less control, evidence indicated “that when teachers were more controlling of students, students performed less well in problem-solving activities, both during instruction” (Deci, et al., 1991, p. 340) and subsequent to the instruction. Pressure from administrators to ensure student controls directly related to the autonomy and support provided by teachers to students (Deci, et al., 1991). Central to these administrative controls, other controls included mandates made by “government agencies, parent groups, and other forces outside of the school system also produced a negative impact on students' self-determination, conceptual learning, and personal adjustment” (p. 340). Maehr (1991) determined that classroom practices are dictated in large part by school policies. Administrators certainly should be aware of their role in creating a school environment that nurtures the child's frame of reference. Specific supports for self-determination includes offering some choices, minimizing harsh controls, acknowledging feelings, and making information available for decision making and for performing target tasks.

Promoting Self Determination in Children

Professional development that supports teachers in better understanding learning through a child's lens is vital to enabling educational professionals to structure learning environments that are child centered. The relationships between administrators, parents, and teachers are also central to understanding the needs of the child. It is recommended practice in the learner-centered educational environment that "talking with children's parents can often fill in the gaps concerning children's learning interests and experiences outside school" (Daniels & Perry, 2003, p. 106). Furthermore, collecting background information and knowledge about individual children is "necessary" for providing meaningful and appropriately challenging activities that will enable children to be the most successful in their academic endeavors. These opportunities factor heavily in creating and honoring a "system of diversity" and enable differentiated learning for individual student needs while supporting teachers in diverse educational environments. Utilizing these strategies and understanding the needs of the child are the first indicators of educational environments designed to promote self-determination in children(Daniels & Perry, 2003).

Conclusion

Teachers must understand self-determination theory and use ways of teaching students that are intrinsically motivating to prosper academic success for children. Schools have changed dramatically over the last thirty years in the way discipline is approached and in how relationships among students, teachers, administrators, and parents are structured.

For new teachers entering an educational setting, unfamiliar with the curricula mandates of a given school and the students, offering students choices about their learning, building relationships with parents, and supporting students to develop a deep understanding of themselves as learners are central to gaining insight into the framework of the learner-centered classroom. To learn new curricula in a given grade level takes approximately one year to explore. When teachers realize the choices within given curricula and allow students the opportunity to co-explore, it simply creates less work for the new teacher, because this system allows the students a good share of the responsibility for their own learning.

New teachers are often caught up in creating much of their own curriculum, comprehension questions, and paper-and-pencil activities that could be alleviated by giving students more choices. To further ensure classroom successes, new teachers need to communicate their goals with others, including parents. After all, when students are placed in charge of much of their own learning the responsibility for success becomes shared and places more accountability on all parties, in turn easing teachers from carrying the whole burden for students' success.

Terms & Concepts

Autonomy: Autonomy in a learning environment can be described as possessing the independent ability to make an academic choice and act on that choice.

Competence: Competence in a learning environment can be described as doing an activity well or to a required standard.

Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation can be ascribed to behaviors that are performed out to avoid risk or seek reward. Behaviors that occur as a result of extrinsic motivation are not performed because of an individual's deep interest, but are performed because they are believed to be instrumental in producing a desired outcome.

Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation can be described ascribed to behaviors that are performed because of the internal desire and regulation of the individual performing the behavior. These are behaviors that elicit joy and pleasure to the individual without external regulators promoting the behavior.

Self-Determination Theory: A theory of motivation which posits that humans continually and actively seek challenges and new experiences to and develop and master. Within education, the theory considers that students are motivated to achieve different objectives.

Bibliography

Agran, M., King-Sears, M., Wehmeyer, M., & Copeland, S. (2003). Teacher's guide to inclusive practice: Student-directed learning. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Agran, M., Hong, S., & Blankenship, K. (2007). Promoting the self-determination of students with visual impairments: Reducing the gap between knowledge and practice. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 101 , 453 – 464.

Retrieved November 7, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Academic Search Premier.

Amabile, T. M., Dejong, W., & Lepper, M. R. (1976). Effects of externally imposed deadlines on subsequent intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 915 – 922.

Benware, C., & Deci, E. L. (1984). The quality of learning with an active versus passive motivational set. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 755 – 765.

Boggiano, A. K., Flink, C., Shields, A., Seelbach, A., & Barrett, M. (1993). Use of techniques promoting students' self-determination: Effects on students' analytic problem-solving skills. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 319 – 336.

Daniels, D., & Perry, K. (2003), "Learner-centered" according to children. Theory into Practice, 42 , 102 – 108. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Academic Search Premier.

Deci, E. L., Betley, G., Kahle, J., Abrams, L., & Porac, J. (1981). When trying to win: Competition and intrinsic motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 79 – 83.

Deci, E. L., Nezlek, J., & Sheinman, L. (1981). Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1 – 10.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The General Causality Orientations Scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal or Research in Personality, 19, 109 – 134.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivation approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237 – 288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well being. American Psychologist, 55,68 – 78.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook on self-determination research (pp. 3 – 33), Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults' orientations toward control versus autonomy with children: Reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 642 – 650.

Deci, E. L., Spiegel, N. H., Ryan, R. M., Koestner, R., & Kauffman, M. (1982). Effects of performance standards on teaching styles: Behavior of controlling teachers.Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 852 – 859.

Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pellitier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychology, 26 , 325 – 346. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Academic Search Premier.

Flink, C., Boggiano, A. K., Main, D. S., Barrett, M., & Katz, P. A. (1992). Children's achievement-related behaviors: The role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational orientations. In A. K. Boggiano & T. S. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A socio-developmental perspective (pp. 189 – 214). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Goodenow, C. (1993). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: Relationships to motivation and achievement. Journal of Early Adolescence, 13, 21 – 43.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890 – 898.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143 - 154.

Hsu, A., & Malkin, F. (2011). Shifting the focus from teaching to learning: Rethinking the role of the teacher educator. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 4, 43-50. Retrieved on December 12, 2013, from EBSCO Online Database Education Research Complete.

Koestner, R., Ryan, R. M., Bernieri, F., & Holt, K. (1984). Setting limits on children's behavior: The differential effects of controlling versus informational styles on intrinsic motivation and creativity. Journal of Personality, 52, 233 – 248.

Maehr, M. L. (1991). Changing the schools: A word to school leaders about enhancing student investment in learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Midgley, C., Feldlaufer, H., & Eccles, J. S. (1989). Student/teacher relations and attitudes toward mathematics before and after the transition to junior high school.Child Development, 60, 981 – 992. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Academic Search Premier.

Mossholder, K. W. (1980). Effects of externally mediated goal setting on intrinsic motivation: A laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 202 – 210.

Patrick, B. C., Skinner, E. A., & Connell, J. P. (1993). What motivates children's behavior and emotion? Joint effects of perceived control and autonomy in the academic domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 781 – 791.

Ryan, R. M., & Grolnick, W. S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children's perceptions.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550 – 558.

Schafer, R. (1968). Aspects of internalization. New York: International Universities Press.

Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M. S. & Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high-school drop out.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1161 – 1176.

Vallerand, R. J., Gauvin, L. L., & Halliwell, W. R. (1986). Negative effects of competition on children's intrinsic motivation. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 649 – 657.

Vallerand, R. J., Hamel, M., & Daoust, H. (1991). Cooperation and competition: A test of their relative effects on intrinsic motivation. Unpublished manuscript, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal Canada.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation.Educational Psychology, 4 , 19 – 31. Retrieved November 7, 2007 from EBSCO Online Database Academic Search Premier.

Wormington, S. V., Corpus, J., & Anderson, K. G. (2012). A person-centered investigation of academic motivation and its correlates in high school. Learning & Individual Differences, 22, 429-438. Retrieved on December 12, 2013, from EBSCO Online Database Education Research Complete.

Wright, G. (2011). Student-centered learning in higher education. International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 23, 92-97. Retrieved on December 12, 2013, from EBSCO Online Database Education Research Complete.

Suggested Reading

Atkinson, J. W., & Feather, N. T. (1966). A theory of achievement motivation.

Atkinson, J. W., & Feather, N. T. (1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Fromm, E. (1976). To have to be? New York: Continuum.

Kasser, T. (2002). The high price of materialism. London: MIT Press.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.

~~~~~~~~

Essay by Sharon Link, Ph.D.

Dr. Sharon Link is an educator, presenter, and mother of a child with autism. She has worked extensively in public education and has researched education and its relationship to autism disorders and other disabilities for the last ten years. Dr. Link currently is the executive director for Autism Disorders Leadership Center, a non-profit research center and is co-founder of Asperger Interventions & Support, Inc. a professional development center. Both organizations are education and research centers seeking to improve education by creating a system of diversity and inclusion in America's schools. To learn more, visit: Asperger Help at http://aspergerhelp.net.


Copyright of Self-Determination Theory -- Research Starters Education is the property of Great Neck Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Anxiety

Photo from: studentcec.org
Photo from: studentcec.org

I hope this finds everyone doing great!

After a rough week with my anxiety, I am thankful to report that this week has been better. I have set an alarm on my phone to try to help to remember my meds, which so far has worked pretty well. Also a comment in response to my post last week by Getting Through Anxiety really helped greatly. So, all in all I think this week has been better. I think one New Year's resolution for this year will be the remember to take my meds and remember to take care of me. Since, I care for my Dad right now, I forget to take care of me quite often (which is probably why I ended up sick just before Christmas and can't seem to shake it). I have to remember that if I don't care for myself I can't care for anyone else. As a people pleaser this is a very hard thing for me to remember, as I'm sure others can relate to this.

So, in summary, next year I think will be about me for a change...lol. I need to start taking better care of myself so that I can take better care of my family.

Have a great Day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Finally!

20151202_145413

So, Christmas is finally over! Did you get everything you wanted for Christmas? I know that I did. My hubby got a stand mixer. I have always wanted one. He also got me a wool neck protector that goes on the seat belt in the car.  I am so short the seat belt doesn't fit me right, it always rubs on my neck and hurts if I'm in the car for too long. He has been talking about getting one for me for quite some time and finally did.

So, who is making new year's resolutions this year? I haven't decided if I will or not as I can't think of anything right now that I need to change other than my weight. If you are setting a new year's resolution this year I would love to hear what it is.

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Home

I have to say I love my new trailer. Before we got this one we were living in an RV. Talk about a minimalist lifestyle. There is only so much you put into one of those before they start looking crowded (which ours was by the way). So in the process of moving to our new camp trailer, I went through everything we had (with a lot of help from my husband) and we managed to get our things down to what would actually fit into the trailer. After 2 weeks of working on the inside it is finally starting to look like home.

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I am so pleased with the way it is turning out! It is still a small space, but it fits well with how my husband and I want to live. We have the ability to stay in one place but yet the flexibility of moving whenever we want to. Because for the most part it is just me and him now this place is about the right size (even though it is in reality the same size as the RV we were in) for the two of us. Plus if one of the kids comes over for a night or 2 the couch pulls down into a bed as well. So it really appears to be the best of both worlds for us.

 

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Why do I write?

Photo from: www.psych2go.net
Photo from: www.psych2go.net

So, I've started writing 101, and already behind 3 days...LOL. Go me! So over the next few days I will try to catch up. Day 1 assignment is to answer the question "why I write".

So mostly I write because it helps me to clear my mind. With my anxiety this is a big deal. Anything that can help to clear my mind helps with my anxiety. I know that I have somewhere that I put my thoughts down "on paper" so to speak. And it gives me the opportunity to hopefully help others dealing with the same thing. That to me is what this is all about. If I can overcome it so can you.

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Chicken Coop

This weekend was very productive. We got the chicken coop done and we got a new house and new additions to the family.

Here is the coop the chickens were in before:

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And this is what they have now:

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It is double the size and has a roosting box. Still not getting any eggs yet, but they have only had the box for a couple days. So now it's just waiting. We also got new additions to the family who will join the others when they are bigger. For now they are in the house until they are old enough to go outside with the rest.

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Kira wants to name these ones because she says they are cute.

Next we got a new home. For the last 2 years the hubby, Kira, and I have been living in an RV. It has become kinda cramped and pretty full. This weekend we were able to find a new home for fairly cheep (which works really well for us right now  LOL).

20151101_123022

I'm pretty sure it's about the same size, but it appears to have more room. So now it's a push to get things moved over. Yes it has been an exciting weekend for the Franklin Family.

 

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Frustration!

Photo from: pintrest.com
Photo from: pintrest.com

So, I finally got my new computer yesterday! I was so excited to finally get it. I spoke the other day about technology running away from me....I'm really bad with it. My last laptop (which was a nice one) I spilled coffee on the keyboard and now it no longer works. So I was really looking forward to getting my new laptop. It came in yesterday and ever since then I have been trying to figure out how to set it up. I think I finally got it. While I love to get new things (I mean who doesn't right?) I despise having to get it ready to actually use. Between my blog, social media, and school I had so many things to download it took half the night and most of this morning. Talk about frustration! Anyhow, now that that is done, hopefully I can get down to business again and start actually creating posts for my blog.

I have some ideas in the works that I will be posting later (over the next few weeks I hope) that I think many of you will enjoy. I love to try new things and this has given me an outlet to let others know what works and what may not (or well more likely what I screw up...LOL). I look forward to being able to do this. I want to try some of the DIY stuff that I have been seeing on Pinterest. Some gardening (like the tires for planters), some home improvement, and even some of the crafts. I have been tossing around the idea of a weekly series on something (what I'm not sure yet...any ideas for something you would like to see would be greatly appreciated). Plus, of course, some of my normal stuff as well (home, anxiety, and recipes). With your help I think I can make a great, informative blog!

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Life!

Photo from covermyfb.com
Photo from covermyfb.com

Since my husband's surgery, we are finally getting back to normal. He is back at work and I am better able to take care of the house. I read a beautiful post this weekend at Live to Write - Write to Live that speaks about living in the moment. I mean the world today is so fast. No one seems to "take time to smell the roses" anymore. It's sad really when you stop to think about it. With the advent of electronics (to make our lives easier.....yeah right! whoever came up with that statement has never met me....technology runs from me), kids no longer play outside (Of course with all the bad things happening to people right in their front yards, who wants to send their kids out to play anymore right?). Besides it's so much easier to watch them and you can get more done when they are occupied with something electronic (smart phone, tablet, computer....you get the picture). I know that I'm also guilty of doing this because I don't want my kids to go outside by themselves. So, they have to wait until I am done with what I need to do before we can go outside.

So, every day I try to pick one thing to work on for that day so that I can slow down a little. This whole week actually, though, I have been trying to get outside more. I remember when I was a kid, my favorite time of day was when I could go outside and play with my friends. I miss that. With that in mind, I've started my plants, I am raising chickens (by the way, any help with care would greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance for any willing to share advice on this). This gets me outside. I am noticing (with the exception of days like today when it is so windy outside that one could get blown away) that I spend a little more time outside each day. I am enjoying being outside of the house more and more. The sad part is I didn't realize I missed this until I started doing it again.

I guess what my plan is now, or another goal for me, is to get outside more. Even if this is just with a book for an hour or so. I just want to get outside. I am hoping that maybe now that the weather is cooling down (we are usually around 110 here in the summer time) I can get the family out to do some hiking and maybe a weekend of camping before it gets too cold. How much fun would that be? And let's not even think about the health benefits of this. I know that being outside really tends to help me when the anxiety hits so this is another plus.

Anyhow, I guess I have gone on long enough...lol. How do you like to spend your days if you are slowing down a bit? Any ideas?

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

One of Those Days….

Photo from https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0CAYQjB1qFQoTCMSg2e3HpMgCFYiigAodmz0PLw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsemidomesticatedmama.com%2F2014%2F07%2Fyou-might-be-having-a-rough-day-if.html&psig=AFQjCNFatUuMvTDNL1CoKmAfO4je7gtT_g&ust=1443901377439059
Photo from https://www.google.com

Ever had one of those days that you just can't seem to get anything done? I think that is the type of day I am having today. I feel like every time I start something I remember something else that I was supposed to start. For me these days are very frustrating and make me want to just climb back in bed and either start the day over or just completely skip it! I feel like lately, this seems to be the way things are going. How do I change this?

I have decided that I need a to-do list every day. I need to focus on only one thing at a time until that thing is done. Then, and only then, will move on to the next. I think that my problem lately has been that I feel the need to be "Super Mom". I know this is an unrealistic expectation, but I am good at those...lol. I try so hard to be perfect (even though realistically I know this is not possible) that many times I have many projects started and seem to finish none. I guess what it comes down to is a lack of focus on my part lately. I feel like there is not enough time in the day to finish all the I need to finish.

I have been looking at planners lately, and I have come to the conclusion that I may need one to help me keep track of what I need to do each day. My problem there is, I have to pick one...lol. There are so many good ones out there but I have yet to decide which will work best for me. My next problem is that I have to remember to actually LOOK at it. I know this seems like a simple task, but for me it really takes thought. Kinda sad, I know, but it seems that once I have one, it sits on the table collecting dust. So I guess my  next two goals are to find a planner that will work and to actually use it. I'll let ya know how this goes in a week or two.

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Blogging 201: Days 7 and 8

Image from www.123f.com
Image from www.123f.com

Well, yesterday was a cluster so I didn't get anything done. Because of this, I am going to combine days 7 and 8 into one post. Day 7 was create an event. I think for the time being I am going to pass on this one. I have so much going on right now as it is that I am not sure I can manage an event successfully at this time. However, I am looking into possibly following a few events to help with content for my blog. There are so many different events out there it's just a matter of finding one that fits with my blog. I think once this blogging 201 course is done I will try to incorporate some of the events into my site, even if it's just with a mention and a link. Seriously, though, I do want to try out a few of them just to see what I can do.

When I started this blog, I knew that I wanted to write, mostly about life in general, but I would like to give other areas of writing a try as well. I know that I have already seen picture challenges like I would like to get into because I love taking pictures. There are also starter prompts where one gets a word, sentence, or theme and make a story out of it. Many of these challenges sound like a lot of fun. So I look forward to making this happen soon.

Image from www.directsystems.com
Image from www.directsystems.com

Day 8 in the blogging 201 course is about making your site a hub. I already have the social media in place, I just have to figure out how best to use it. I have a few projects that I want to do and I plan on posting before, after, and during pictures on Facebook and probably Instagram as I do them. Once done I will write it up (with pictures) here as well. I hope to be able to show someone else how to do some of the projects I would like to complete. I hope that some of them come in handy for someone else. I would also like to start a weekly something or other, I just have to figure out what I would like to do.

I hope to see you again soon

Have a great day!

Renee

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

A Letter to Me

Renee,

First I want to say Happy Birthday! It is hard to imagine you are 41 today. It really doesn't seem like that much time has past. But oh..what am time it has been. You now have 3 children that are 18 or over and one more still growing. I know you don't see him much, but keep hoping that one day he will come back to you. It could happen

What can I say to you that may help you in the future? I know there have been some bad spots in life, but it will make you who you are today. It will take 2 divorces before you meet the man you will love for the rest of your life. Just try to remember the good times.

Would I change anything? Not at all. If you were to change one thing it would change it all. Meaning you would not find Aarron. Are there regrets? I would have to say no. I love where I am right now. I know that the anxiety is bad some days, but you will work through it. It gets better every day. The time you will spend in Oklahoma may not be the best, but what an adventure it was. Waiting every day to see if there would be a storm during the rain season. Oh yeah, that did not help the anxiety. Just talk to Aarron, he will help you through it.

But oh the sights you will see while you are there! You made your first trip to Bass Pro Shops and what an exciting day that is.1897892_10152340072669555_450961629814779632_n 10013950_10152340071854555_7216970985877634324_n 10173530_10152340072399555_5981797307010019630_n 10174882_10152340071609555_2455689620863847251_n

The trip to the Museum of Osteology is one you will not soon forget.10305608_10152393964089555_1538463283410641566_n 10258684_10152393947724555_1395560755864345706_n - Copy 10252172_10152393948164555_4866769206460090180_n - Copy

The Oklahoma Bombing Memorial was something else. It was so quite there even though there was traffic about 100 ft away on all sides.

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Coming home will be the best thing you can think of at the time. And it will be good. This will show you how much you really do like being home.

Life will have it's bumps and obstacles, but just keep doing what you are doing and things will get better. You kids will grow. Tim will find you again. You will meet Aarron who will keep you laughing all the time. You will love him more than words can say. So just keep on the path you are on now and you will get here and finally be content with your life. It no longer feels as if something is missing....it's just right.

Happy Birthday Renee

Love,

Me

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Blogging 201: Make the most of your Archives

TGIF everyone!

Today is all about the past! Why? Because the archives section of the blog shows your posts from the past.

I have already added this to my site but I wasn't sure if I should or not. So today's blogging 201 told me I was doing something right....YAY! I know I worry to much about the little stuff but I am new and still really have no idea as to what I am doing...lol. I guess one could say that I am playing it be ear...which in itself is a little scary for me. I like to have a plan.

Another suggestion that was made was link content to previous posts. I'm not sure how to do this yet but I will figure it out and start using this as well in the future. Maybe I could add this to my goals for the site. Hey! look at that. Thank you McCallister sculpture for the information on how to do this.

Well today is short and sweet. I have a lot of homework to do still today.

Have a wonderful day!

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Blogging 201: Give em What They Want

Creative abstract business success, financial growth and development concept: color growing bar graphs with red rising arrow and colorful pie chart isolated on white background with reflection effect

So, today is about the stats. Looking at mine (which is mighty slim at the moment since I've only been up and running for about a week) I am actually quite impressed. I already have followers! Granted for the time being it is only 3 but in line with my goals I am working on that part as well. I know that we are supposed to publish our best stuff on the day that we have the most views, but I am not quite that organized just yet. I usually write the post and publish it the same day...lol. This is yet another thing I guess I need to work on.

As I was looking at a few other blogs, some say they set up something to publish a post ahead of time so they can write it and leave it I guess. I think in the future this may be something I will look into, but for the moment I will continue to do it this way.

I have to say, that for a new blogger, this blogging 201 course has been a lifesaver. I really wasn't sure what I was doing or going to do for this. I just knew that I wanted to start a blog. I wasn't sure what I wanted to write about (and I'm still not..lol) or how to go about it. The girls (and/or guys) that are running this thing are amazing and have a lot of good information so far. I cannot wait to see what the rest of the course will bring.

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Blogging 201: Read all over

OK, for today's assignment we are to make sure we are "read all over". What this means is to make sure our blog looks good and is readable across all devices. Personally I prefer working from my tablet, but we all have our own favorite way of reading blogs. So, for those of you who use your tablet, computer, and yes even your phone should have a pretty good view of my site. According my customizer   on the phone my site should look like this:

Screenshot (1)

Which is just about the same way it looks on my tablet with a few exceptions. The Sidebar menus are at the bottom of the screen instead of on the side, but I guess I can live with this as there really is no other way for it show on a phone...;)

The tablet seems to look pretty much the same as the computer but obviously a little smaller. All in all though, from what I can tell, my site should look pretty good across all devices. If not, please let me know and I try to tweak it a bit more to ensure it does look good. Of course any and all reviews of my site will be taken into consideration and greatly appreciated. With that in mind, any suggestions on how to make it look better would be very helpful to me as I am so very new at this.

Well I gotta run. School work awaits...YAY!(Can you see the sarcasm here...lol). Have a great day!

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Quote of the day for March 6, 2017

Working

Ok. To be more accountable to you and to myself I am working on setting three goals for my blog. The questions we are to answer are: Why do you blog? I think I am doing this more for myself than anything else. Writing everything down helps me to get my head clear. Second question is: If your blog exceeded your wildest dreams, what would that look like? I think for me this would be that people are interested in what I have to say...lol. I am not sure that I am really leading an interesting enough life to be doing this. I guess if I can help even one person through anything then I have done a good enough job.

So, the three goals for my blog are this:

  1. Get more readers by the end of the year.
  2. Publish at least 4 days a week.
  3. Spend time on my followers posts.

In setting these three goals, I am pledging to be more active with my blog and with anyone who decides to follow my blog. I hope to start meeting you soon.

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